Arguably, one of the functionalities that best represent why Python has so many multidisciplinary uses is its multiprocessing library. This library allows Python to maintain pools of processes and communication between these processes with most of the simplicity of a standard multithreaded application (asynchronously invoking a function, locking, and IPC). This is not to say that Python can’t do threads, too, but, due to being able to quickly run map/reduce operations or asynchronous tasks using a very simple set of functions combined with the disadvantages of having to consider the GIL when doing multithreaded development, I believe the multiprocess design to be more popular by a landslide.
There are mountains of examples for how to use multiprocessing, along with sufficient documentation for most of the IPC mechanisms that can be used to communicate between processes: queues, pipes, “manager”-based shares and proxy objects, shared ctypes types, multiprocessing-based “client” and “listener” sockets, etc..
There is a very subtle IPC mechanism called a “namespace” (which is actual part of Manager), whose presence in the documentation only speaks for a couple of lines of the thousands that are there. It’s easy, and worth special mention.
from multiprocessing import Pool, Manager from os import getpid from time import sleep def _worker(ns): pid = getpid() print("%d: Worker started." % (pid)) while ns.is_running is True: sleep(1) print("%d: Worker terminating." % (pid)) m = Manager() ns = m.Namespace() ns.is_running = True num_workers = 5 p = Pool(num_workers) for i in xrange(num_workers): p.apply_async(_worker, (ns,)) sleep(10) print("Shutting down.") ns.is_running = False p.close() p.join() print("All workers joined.")
52893: Worker started. 52894: Worker started. 52895: Worker started. 52896: Worker started. 52897: Worker started. Shutting down. 52894: Worker terminating. 52893: Worker terminating. 52895: Worker terminating. 52896: Worker terminating. 52897: Worker terminating. All workers joined.
A namespace is very much like a bulletin board, where attributes can be assigned by one process, and read by others. This works for immutable values like strings and primitive types. Otherwise, updates can’t be tracked properly:
from multiprocessing import Manager m = Manager() ns = m.Namespace() ns.test_value = 'original value' ns.test_list =  print("test_value (master, original): %s" % (ns.test_value)) print("test_list (master, original): %s" % (ns.test_list)) ns.test_value = 'new value' ns.test_list.append(10) print("test_value (master, updated): %s" % (ns.test_value)) print("test_list (master, updated): %s" % (ns.test_list))
test_value (master, original): original value test_list (master, original):  test_value (master, updated): new value test_list (master, updated): 
Though not working for some types, namespaces are a terrific mechanism for sharing counters and flags between processes.