Python: Command-Line Completion for argparse

argcomplete provides very useful functionality that you will basically get for free with just a couple of steps.

Implementation

Put some markup below the shebang of your frontend script in the form of a comment:

#!/usr/bin/env python
# PYTHON_ARGCOMPLETE_OK

The BASH-completion script argcomplete will basically identify and scan any script with a Python shebang that is used with BASH-completion. This entails actually running the script. In order to minimize how much time is spent loading scripts that don’t actually use argcomplete, the completion script will ignore anything that does not have this comment directly following the shebang.

Next, add and import for the argcomplete package and run argcomplete.autocomplete(parser) after you have configured your command-line parameters but before your call to parser.parse_args() (where parser is an instance of argparse.ArgumentParser). This function will produce command-line configuration metadata and then terminate.

That is it. Note that it is not practical to assume that everyone who uses your script will have argcomplete installed. They may not be using BASH (BASH is the only well-supported shell at this time), they may not be using a supported OS, and/or any commercial environments that adopt your tools may be server environments that have no use for command-line completion and refuse to support it. Therefore, you should wrap the import with a try-except for ImportError and then only call argcomplete.autocomplete if you were able to import the package.

Installation

To install autocomplete, the simplest route is to merely do a “sudo pip install argcomplete” and then call “activate-global-python-argcomplete” (this is a physical script likely installed to /usr/local/bin. This only has to be done once and will install a non-project-specific script that will work for any script that is equipped to use argcomplete. For other configuration and semantics, see the project page.

Go: An In-Memory ReadWriteSeeker

The SeekableBuffer type is similar to a bytes.Buffer in that you can perform both reads and writes against it, but has the following two main differences:

  1. You can seek on it.
  2. After writing to it, the current position will be on the byte following whatever you wrote. This is the typical behavior for a file resource on almost any platform but not for a bytes.Buffer.

Eccentric usage of seek, read, and write behavior, such as the following, will work as expected:

  • seeking but not writing
  • seeking past the end of the file and writing
  • seeking past the end of the file and reading
  • writing N+M bytes when positioned only N bytes from the end of the file

Usage (from the unit-tests):

sb := NewSeekableBuffer()

// Write first string.

data := []byte("word1-word2")

_, err := sb.Write(data)
log.PanicIf(err)

// Seek and replace partway through, and replace more data than we
// currently have.

_, err = sb.Seek(6, os.SEEK_SET)
log.PanicIf(err)

data2 := []byte("word3-word4")

_, err = sb.Write(data2)
log.PanicIf(err)

// Read contents.

_, err = sb.Seek(0, os.SEEK_SET)
log.PanicIf(err)

buffer := make([]byte, 20)

_, err = sb.Read(buffer)
log.PanicIf(err)

// `buffer` currently has "word1-word3-word4".

Python: Parsing XML and Retaining the Comments

By default, Python’s built-in ElementTree module strips comments as it reads them. The solution is just obscure enough to be hard to find.

import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET

class _CommentedTreeBuilder(ET.TreeBuilder):
    def comment(self, data):
        self.start('!comment', {})
        self.data(data)
        self.end('!comment')

def parse(filepath):
    ctb = _CommentedTreeBuilder()
    xp = ET.XMLParser(target=ctb)
    tree = ET.parse(filepath, parser=xp)

    root = tree.getroot()
    # ...

When enumerating the parsed nodes, the comments will have a tag-name of “!comment”.

ssl: Promoting Existing Client Socket to SSL in C/C++

You may be in a situation where something else produces the sockets for you (such as an event-loop) or you otherwise need to manage the socket rather then allowing something else to.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <openssl/ssl.h>

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    int sockfd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
    if (!sockfd) {
        printf("Error creating socket.\n");
        return -1;
    }

    struct sockaddr_in sa;
    memset (&sa, 0, sizeof(sa));

    sa.sin_family = AF_INET;
    sa.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr("172.217.2.196");
    sa.sin_port = htons (443); 

    socklen_t socklen = sizeof(sa);
    if (connect(sockfd, (struct sockaddr *)&sa, socklen)) {
        printf("Error connecting to server.\n");
        return -1;
    }

    SSL_library_init();
    SSLeay_add_ssl_algorithms();
    SSL_load_error_strings();

    const SSL_METHOD *meth = TLSv1_2_client_method();
    SSL_CTX *ctx = SSL_CTX_new (meth);

    SSL *ssl = SSL_new (ctx);
    if (ssl == NULL) {
        printf("Could not create SSL context.\n");
        return -1;
    }

    SSL_set_fd(ssl, sockfd);

    int err = SSL_connect(ssl);
    if (err <= 0) {
        printf("Could not connect.\n");
        return -1;
    }

    printf ("SSL connection using %s\n", SSL_get_cipher (ssl));

    // Do send/receive here.

    return 0;
}

Adapted from openssl-in-c-socket-connection-https-client, and works with both OpenSSL and BoringSSL.

Go: Generating KML

Use go-kml to build a KML structure. Then, marshal using the xml package.

An example using code from the project:

package main

import (
    "encoding/xml"
    "os"

    "github.com/twpayne/go-kml"
)

func main() {
    x := kml.KML(
        kml.Placemark(
            kml.Name("The Pentagon"),
            kml.Polygon(
                kml.Extrude(true),
                kml.AltitudeMode("relativeToGround"),
                kml.OuterBoundaryIs(
                    kml.LinearRing(
                        kml.Coordinates([]kml.Coordinate{
                            {-77.05788457660967, 38.87253259892824, 100},
                            {-77.05465973756702, 38.87291016281703, 100},
                            {-77.05315536854791, 38.87053267794386, 100},
                            {-77.05552622493516, 38.868757801256, 100},
                            {-77.05844056290393, 38.86996206506943, 100},
                            {-77.05788457660967, 38.87253259892824, 100},
                        }...),
                    ),
                ),
            ),
        ),
    )

    e := xml.NewEncoder(os.Stdout)
    e.Indent("", "  ")

    err := e.Encode(x)
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }
}

This prints:

<kml xmlns="http://www.opengis.net/kml/2.2">
  <Placemark>
    <name>The Pentagon</name>
    <Polygon>
      <extrude>1</extrude>
      <altitudeMode>relativeToGround</altitudeMode>
      <outerBoundaryIs>
        <LinearRing>
          <coordinates>-77.05788457660967,38.87253259892824,100 -77.05465973756702,38.87291016281703,100 -77.0531553685479,38.87053267794386,100 -77.05552622493516,38.868757801256,100 -77.05844056290393,38.86996206506943,100 -77.05788457660967,38.87253259892824,100</coordinates>
        </LinearRing>
      </outerBoundaryIs>
    </Polygon>
  </Placemark>
</kml>

..which renders as this when using Google Earth:

Google Earth Pro_004