If you’ve heard of LXC (I’ve written a post on them, before), then you’re already at least partially familiar with *kernel namespaces*. They are what allow different processes to have resources in a compartmentalized fashion. Here’s a great article, courtesy of dotCloud and the Docker project: PaaS under the hood.
The thing that most virtual-machine solutions have in common is the overhead required to run them. There’s a substantial resource cost for the management of these containers, aside from that for the machine itself.
There’s an alternative to all of that, called LXC. In fact, though it used to require an impossible number of steps to configure, it’s now sufficient to just pass in a couple of command-line parameters and leave everything else to defaults.
LXC is somewhere between chroot and QEMU. It imposes resource control using the cgroups functionality that comes packaged in the kernel, which is, essentially, the next evolution of ulimit. Although the resource-control is somewhat disabled by default, you can set limits even so far as disk I/O rates.
It’s important to know that, though LXC works terrifically, it should only be used in either personal systems or any other system that’s sufficiently fenced-off from outside threats. This is because it doesn’t benefit from 100% isolation like most VM’s do (a tradeoff for its lightweightedness). An example of this is that the container shares the same sysfs as the host, due to limitations in sysfs. Therefore, changing sysfs from the container will affect the host.
Though there are security concerns, I have been told authoritatively that there is a less likely chance of a rogue application causing issues for the larger host than any other critical problem that systems usually encounter in production. So, a couple of built-in security concessions are the only plausible risks.
There’s an easy way and a hard way to create system containers. The hard way is to create and populate it with all of the configuration that is required of any new system (see here). The easy way is to simply use the “lxc-create” tool and tell it to follow a template.
These are the templates available in my installation:
$ ls -1 /usr/share/lxc/templates alpine altlinux archlinux busybox debian fedora opensuse oracle sshd ubuntu ubuntu-cloud
You can only use a template that’s compatible with the system on which you are working. Otherwise, you’ll find that “yum”, for instance, is missing if you try to build a Fedora instance on Ubuntu, as well as categorically-similar issues with the other templates. On my Ubuntu, I can create containers with the “busybox” (which creates instantaneously), “debian” and “ubuntu” (7 minutes), “ubuntu-cloud” (6 minutes), and “sshd” (see below) templates. Note that any required, downloaded images are cached, and subsequent builds only take a minute or two.
The current steps to build an Ubuntu container (from my Ubuntu box, after installing the lxc package):
$ sudo lxc-create -t ubuntu -n <container name>
Depending on the template, you might see something like this upon completion:
# The default user is 'ubuntu' with password 'ubuntu'! # Use the 'sudo' command to run tasks as root in the container.
I named my container “ubuntu-2”. The container directories get created in /var/lib/lxc, and have a reasonable size:
$ ls -l /var/lib/lxc total 4 drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Nov 6 02:32 ubuntu-2 $ sudo du -sh /var/lib/lxc/ubuntu-2/ 263M /var/lib/lxc/ubuntu-2/
To start the container as a daemon:
$ sudo lxc-start -n ubuntu-2 -d
Or, to start the container as a foreground machine, complete with console (using another, BusyBox-based, container, which shows this better):
$ sudo lxc-start -n busybox-1 udhcpc (v1.20.2) started Sending discover... Sending select for 10.0.3.79... Lease of 10.0.3.79 obtained, lease time 3600 Please press Enter to activate this console.
To list the currently-running containers:
$ sudo lxc-ls --fancy NAME STATE IPV4 IPV6 AUTOSTART ----------------------------------------------- busybox-1 STOPPED - - NO debian-1 RUNNING 10.0.3.247 - NO ubuntu-1 RUNNING 10.0.3.217 - NO ubuntu-2 RUNNING 10.0.3.249 - NO
Very cool. To connect via SSH:
$ ssh email@example.com The authenticity of host '10.0.3.249 (10.0.3.249)' can't be established. ECDSA key fingerprint is 73:8c:31:53:76:36:93:6e:59:ee:3f:d3:6f:27:13:c7. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes Warning: Permanently added '10.0.3.249' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts. firstname.lastname@example.org's password: The programs included with the Ubuntu system are free software; the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright. Ubuntu comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by applicable law. Welcome to Ubuntu 13.04 (GNU/Linux 3.8.0-30-generic i686) * Documentation: https://help.ubuntu.com/ ubuntu@ubuntu-2:~$
To stop the container:
$ sudo lxc-stop -n ubuntu-2
If you don’t want, or need, to build a new system, you can also configure an “ssh container”, where a read-only mount of the current filesystem is combined with an SSH server to create the facade of a separate machine instance. It’s unclear whether there’s a provision to allow changes (such as implementing a ramdisk to produce the illusion of a read-write experience similar to a disc-based “live” Linux distribution).
In addition to hosting “system” containers, LXC can also host “application” containers. Quite obviously, the latter simply host applications with all of the benefits of the resource-control that we’ve already mentioned, as well as, most likely, its security limitations.
$ sudo lxc-execute -n <container name> <command>
You might see an error like the following:
$ sudo lxc-execute -n app_container_1 touch /tmp/aa lxc-execute: Permission denied - failed to change apparmor profile to lxc-container-default lxc-execute: invalid sequence number 1. expected 4 lxc-execute: failed to spawn 'app_container_1'
The workaround is:
$ cat > test.conf <<EOF lxc.aa_profile = unconfined lxc.rootfs = / EOF $ sudo lxc-execute -f test.conf -n app-container-1 touch /tmp/aa
When the application container launches, you’ll be able to see it in the lxc-ls list (above). You’ll also be able to find it in the ps list. Obviously the command-above just touches a file before returning, so it won’t be alive long-enough for you to be able to see it running.
Naturally, everything we’ve mentioned can be done from code (Python, Lua, and Go, currently). This is a Python example mentioned on the LXC homepage (whose link was at the beginning of the article):
import lxc container = lxc.Container("p1") container.create("ubuntu") container.start() container.get_ips() container.stop()
As mentioned, LXC isn’t the right-kind of container for serving from the DMZ in a corporate environment, but it is awesome as a fast, easily-constructed, hold-no-prisoners system container, where you want to run a dozen on a commodity box with minimal resource consumption.