Go: Implementing Subcommands With go-flags

github.com/jessevdk/go-flags is the go-to tool for argument processing. It supports subcommands but understanding how to do it is a feat of reverse-engineering. So, here is an example.

Code:

package main

import (
    "os"

    "github.com/jessevdk/go-flags"
)

type readParameters struct {
}

type writeParameters struct {
}

type parameters struct {
    Verbose bool `short:"v" long:"verbose" description:"Display logging"`
    Read readParameters `command:"read" alias:"r" description:"Read functions"`
    Write readParameters `command:"write" alias:"w" description:"Write functions"`
}

var (
    arguments = new(parameters)
)

func main() {
    p := flags.NewParser(arguments, flags.Default)

    _, err := p.Parse()
    if err != nil {
        os.Exit(-1)
    }

    switch p.Active.Name {
    case "read":
        //...
    case "write":
        //...
    }
}

If you were to save it as "args.go", this is what the help and the usage would look like:

$ go run args.go -h
Usage:
  args [OPTIONS] 

Application Options:
  -v, --verbose  Display logging

Help Options:
  -h, --help     Show this help message

Available commands:
  read   Read functions (aliases: r)
  write  Write functions (aliases: w)

exit status 255

$ go run args.go read 
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Go: Testing Against Application Binaries

Unit-testing in Go is simple and a pleasure. The minimum structure required to do unit-tests is scarcely more than that required to write any kind of code. In fact, most of the time it is so easy that you are almost, arguably, guaranteed to waste time doing any debugging at all before you have written unit-tests.

However, it may take a little more thought to test your executables. Even though you can still have a unit-testing source-file (“*_test.go”) and you can call your main() to do something, it’s non-trivial to capture your output and/or pass arguments:

  • You might end-up using os.Pipe() to hook stdout/stderr and launching a goroutine to read from the other end, but you might have issues.
  • Your test might call back into the execute in os.Args[0] (the tests run from a test-specific binary generated by the testing process), but this won’t accept the arbitrary command-line arguments required by your application.
  • You might wrap a call to “go test” and try to pass “-args ” (“-args” is like “–” for tests, where all following arguments are passed verbatim), but I have had issues with this.

Naturally, you want to avoid having to kick-off a build of your application at the top of the tests in order to have something to test against.

You can use “go run” with exec.Command (in os/exec) to easily accomplish all of this while still avoiding a manual build. You can even provide it alternative io.Writer instances in order to capture stdout/stderr output.

Example:

package main

import (
    "testing"
    "os"
    "path"
    "bytes"
    "fmt"

    "os/exec"
)

var (
    assetsPath = ""
    appFilepath = ""
)

func TestMain(t *testing.T) {
    imageFilepath := path.Join(assetsPath, "NDM_8901.jpg")

    cmd := exec.Command(
            "go", "run", appFilepath,
            "-filepath", imageFilepath)

    b := new(bytes.Buffer)
    cmd.Stdout = b
    cmd.Stderr = b

    err := cmd.Run()
    actual := b.String()

    if err != nil {
        fmt.Printf(actual)
        panic(err)
    }

    expected := `IFD=[IfdIdentity] ID=(0x010f) NAME=[Make] COUNT=(6) TYPE=[ASCII] VALUE=[Canon]
IFD=[IfdIdentity] ID=(0x0110) NAME=[Model] COUNT=(22) TYPE=[ASCII] VALUE=[Canon EOS 5D Mark III]
IFD=[IfdIdentity] ID=(0x0112) NAME=[Orientation] COUNT=(1) TYPE=[SHORT] VALUE=[1]
IFD=[IfdIdentity] ID=(0x011a) NAME=[XResolution] COUNT=(1) TYPE=[RATIONAL] VALUE=[72/1]
IFD=[IfdIdentity] ID=(0x011b) NAME=[YResolution] COUNT=(1) TYPE=[RATIONAL] VALUE=[72/1]
IFD=[IfdIdentity] ID=(0x0128) NAME=[ResolutionUnit] COUNT=(1) TYPE=[SHORT] VALUE=[2]
...
IFD=[IfdIdentity] ID=(0x0128) NAME=[ResolutionUnit] COUNT=(1) TYPE=[SHORT] VALUE=[2]
IFD=[IfdIdentity] ID=(0x0201) NAME=[JPEGInterchangeFormat] COUNT=(1) TYPE=[LONG] VALUE=[11444]
IFD=[IfdIdentity] ID=(0x0202) NAME=[JPEGInterchangeFormatLength] COUNT=(1) TYPE=[LONG] VALUE=[21491]
`

    if actual != expected {
        t.Fatalf("Output not as expected:\n%s", actual)
    }
}

func init() {
    goPath := os.Getenv("GOPATH")

    assetsPath = path.Join(goPath, "src", "github.com", "dsoprea", "go-exif", "assets")
    appFilepath = path.Join(goPath, "src", "github.com", "dsoprea", "go-exif", "exif-read-tool", "main.go")
}

Go: Image-Processing Microservice

Imaginary is a fun little package that can be Dockerized and deployed next to the rest of your services to offload image-processing:

Fast HTTP microservice written in Go for high-level image processing backed by bimg and libvips. imaginary can be used as private or public HTTP service for massive image processing with first-class support for Docker & Heroku. It’s almost dependency-free and only uses net/http native package without additional abstractions for better performance.

Go: Functions that satisfy interfaces

I ran across this while sifting through the http package:

// The HandlerFunc type is an adapter to allow the use of
// ordinary functions as HTTP handlers. If f is a function
// with the appropriate signature, HandlerFunc(f) is a
// Handler that calls f.
type HandlerFunc func(ResponseWriter, *Request)

// ServeHTTP calls f(w, r).
func (f HandlerFunc) ServeHTTP(w ResponseWriter, r *Request) {
    f(w, r)
}

A function that satisfies http.HandlerFunc will also automatically get a function-on-a-function (who knew) that makes it look like a struct that satisfies the http.Handler interface as well.

I had looked for a footnote about this in the section on function declarations in the Go language specification but was not successful. The receiver is little more than just a repositioned first-argument. There’s nothing that says “MUST be a struct or a func”.

Resolving Go Import URLs

The package path that you import may not directly correlate to a repository URL. If Go can not find the package in your GOPATH, it will load the URL, redirecting as necessary, and will either look for a “meta” tag with a “name” attribute having value “go-import” or take whatever URL we are at when no more HTTP redirects are necessary (if any).

To speed things up, I wrote a short Python tool to do this and stashed it in a gist.

Make sure to install the dependencies:

  • requests
  • beautifulsoup4

Source:

import sys
import argparse
import urllib.parse

import requests
import bs4

def _get_cycle(url):
    while 1:
        print("Reading: {}".format(url))

        r = requests.get(url, allow_redirects=False)
        r.raise_for_status()

        bs = bs4.BeautifulSoup(r.text, 'html.parser')

        def meta_filter(tag): 
            # We're looking for meta-tags like this:
            #
            # <meta name="go-import" content="googlemaps.github.io/maps git https://github.com/googlemaps/google-maps-services-go">
            
            return \
                tag.name == 'meta' and \
                tag.attrs.get('name') == 'go-import'

        for m in bs.find_all(meta_filter):
            phrase = m.attrs['content']
            _, vcs, repo_url_root = phrase.split(' ')
            if vcs != 'git':
                continue

            return repo_url_root

        next_url = r.headers.get('Location')
        if next_url is None:
            break

        p = urllib.parse.urlparse(next_url)
        if p.netloc == '':
            # Take the schema, hostname, and port from the last URL.
            p2 = urllib.parse.urlparse(url)
            updated_url = '{}://{}{}'.format(p2.scheme, p2.netloc, next_url)
            print("  [{}] => [{}]".format(next_url, updated_url))

            url = updated_url
        else:
            url = next_url

    return url

def _main():
    description = "Determine the import URL for the given Go import path"
    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description=description)
    
    parser.add_argument(
        'import_path',
        help='Go import path')

    args = parser.parse_args()

    initial_url = "https://{}".format(args.import_path)
    final_url = _get_cycle(initial_url)

    print("Final URL: [{}]".format(final_url))

if __name__ == '__main__':
    _main()

Creating TAR Archives in Go

A short program to show how to write TAR-GZ and TAR-XZ (LZMA) archives. Note that I have not included an example for TAR-BZ2 because there is no easily-findable public library for doing so.

package main

import (
    "archive/tar"
    "compress/gzip"

    "fmt"
    "os"
    "io"
    "time"

    "github.com/ulikunitz/xz"
)

func addFile(tw *tar.Writer, filepath string) {
    data := fmt.Sprintf("I am data: %s\n", filepath)

    h := new(tar.Header)
    h.Name = filepath
    h.Size = int64(len(data))
    h.Mode =  int64(0666)
    h.ModTime = time.Now()

    // write the header to the tarball archive
    if err := tw.WriteHeader(h); err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }

    // copy the file data to the tarball 
    if _, err := io.WriteString(tw, data); err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }
}

func createTarGz() {
    f, err := os.Create("output.tar.gz")
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }

    defer f.Close()

    gw := gzip.NewWriter(f)
    defer gw.Close()

    tw := tar.NewWriter(gw)
    defer tw.Close()

    addFile(tw, "aa")
    addFile(tw, "bb/cc")
}

func createTarXz() {
    f, err := os.Create("output.tar.xz")
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }

    defer f.Close()

    xw, err := xz.NewWriter(f)
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }

    defer xw.Close()

    tw := tar.NewWriter(xw)
    defer tw.Close()

    addFile(tw, "dd")
    addFile(tw, "ee/ff")
}

func main() {
    createTarGz()
    createTarXz()
}

Examine the outputs:

$ tar tzf output.tar.gz 
aa
bb/cc
$ tar xz -O - -f output.tar.gz aa
I am data: aa
$ tar xz -O - -f output.tar.gz bb/cc
I am data: bb/cc

$ tar tJf output.tar.xz
dd
ee/ff
I am data: bb/cc
$ tar xJ -O - -f output.tar.xz dd
I am data: dd
$ tar xJ -O - -f output.tar.xz ee/ff
I am data: ee/ff